Overview of printed circuit boards

PCBs are most commonly made out of fiberglass, composite, epoxy, or another composite material. Most PCBs for simple electronics are simple and composed of only a single layer. More sophisticated hardware such as computer graphics cards or motherboards can have multiple layers, sometimes up to twelve.

Anatomy of a Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

As we all know what circuit boards look like: They’re thin, rigid, and usually rectangular, with components attached to one or both surfaces. The top and bottom are generally colored in dark blue or green. Lines running between the components have a slightly different color.  In addition to the top and bottom sides, modern circuit boards have internal planes called layers. Internal layers don’t have components but may contain metal lines the carry electricity to and from the components on the top and bottom. For example, the circuit board in the iPhone handset has 10 layers.

Layers are critically important in PCB design, so circuit board are commonly divided into three categories: single-sided, double-sided, or multilayer. This section discusses each of these categories and the manner in which the circuit boards are constructed.

Single-sided boards 

The body of a single-sided board is made of a hard, nonconductive material, typically fiberglass epoxy-resin, or FR4. Some literature refers to a board’s material as substrate, the substrate thickness is given in thousandths of inches called mils (1 mil = 0.001 in). standard board thicknesses are 31 mils, 39 mils and 62 mils. A thin layer of metal is attached (usually glued or electrodeposited) to one side of the board, and will call this the top side. This metal is almost always copper, which is inexpensive and provides a low-resistance path for electricity.

Double-side boards 

As the number of components on a board increases, so do the number of traces. In many instances, the full set of traces can’t be connected on a single plane without intersecting one another. To solve this problem, traces need a way to jump over other traces. This jumping is made possible by adding copper to the board’s bottom side. This bottom side may also support additional components. A board with copper on both sides is called a double-sided board.

Multilayer Boards 

Double-sided boards enable more complex routing than single-sided boards, but sometimes two layers still aren’t enough. This occurs frequently when designing circuit whose components have hundreds of closely spaced leads. It’s also important for designs that require entire layers for ground or power supply. To resolve these issues, board designers create multilayer board designs. In essence, a multilayer board is a group of double-sided board sandwiched together using a material called prepreg. Similar to glue, prepreg is soft to begin with but hardens when heat and pressure are applied. A board’s arrangement of core and prepreg layers in a multilayer board is called its stack-up.

PCB Fabrication And Assembly

The PCB Fabrication And Assembly

Wingate Electronic Sdn Bhd was established in 2012. We provide one-stop services for PCB and PCBA. We can fabricate PCB up to 20 layers quick turn prototype and mass production high precision PCBs. ”The best quality, the lowest price, and the promptest delivery” is our principle. And our PCB assembly, we have automatic optical inspection (AOI) testers and can deal with all kinds of integrated circuits such as SMT, Through-hole components, and QFN. Our company can provide chip placement through-hole components assembly and finished products fabrication.

pcb assembly

Printed circuit board is a complex process that begins with a product concept and ends with a fully functional PCB assembly. The physical circuitry will be laid out in a PCB design after the net connectivity is captured. Finally, electronic components are ordered. We will solder the components onto the board, then the circuit board will be integrated into the full system. It will follow by assembly testing and verification.

pcb fabrication

We need to take care of a lot of intricate details from the beginning to the end of PCB fabrication. One area in this process that doesn’t get the recognition it deserves is the fabrication of the bare board. The design of a PCB receives a lot of attention due to the complex software tools used in its creation. Manufacturing will get equally lauded in the satisfaction of completing the final product. But somewhere in the middle of this lies, the mysterious process of circuit board fabrication, often unknown outside of the design world.

Repair Industrial Electronic Devices Malaysia

Industrial Electronic Devices Repair In Malaysia

Here at Wingate Electronic Sdn Bhd, We can provide industrial electronic devices repair. Instead of throwing away the damaged circuit boards such as power supply, AC Inverter, DC inverter, touch screen monitor (HMI), servo amplifier, PLC, etc.

Do send them to us for a free evaluation and price quote for repair. “YOUR SMALL ACTION TODAY MIGHT TRANSLATE INTO A BIG SAVING TOMORROW.”


electronic repair service


Repair Benefit

Nowadays, people rely on a truly large number of electronic devices. Many of them are fragile and prone to breaking. That can tempt people to simply go out and buy new ones. However, it is often better to repair them instead of replacing them. Fixing damaged electronics offers quite a few advantages, so it is something that everyone should consider when they suffer a malfunction.


repair benefits


Save Money 

Nowadays New electronics are expensive, especially when they are the latest and greatest model to hit the market. Most people struggle to find the money to replace a damaged device without warning, and even those who can afford it often find that it causes some financial strain. Repairing damaged electronics is normally cheaper than replacing them, especially for larger or more complex devices. It is still important to check the prices before making a choice, but it is generally safe to assume that repairs are the financially responsible option.


save money


Save Time

Most people spend a lot of time picking out a new device. They compare models, look for sales, and read reviews. That is vital to make a good choice, and we could actually spend on doing other tasks. Sending a device out for repairs is faster and ideal for people who have busy lives. It is also beneficial to those who cannot spare the time to do the research for a new device.


save time

No Learning Curve

It will take a huge amount of time for us to get to use a new device. Especially if that device is a major upgrade over an old one. Most people can get used to any new design with time and effort, but they suffer a major loss to productivity while they adapt. It can also be a deeply frustrating experience. That makes it a problem for both businesses that need their employees to perform at their best and for private individuals who want a device that just works. Sticking to older electronics eliminates that learning curve, which makes it the most convenient option for the vast majority of people.


Know Outcome

Even people who do their research sometimes find that new devices do not meet their expectations. That leads to stress, disappointment, and wasted money. A repaired device is a known outcome, so the owner will rarely be surprised by the result. They can simply go back to use the device that they have gotten used to using.


2018 AI And Robotic Predictions

2018 AI And Robotic Predictions

“In the information industry and at Thomson Reuters, AI and machine learning are already driving innovation and transformation. They are embedded in how we sift through large volumes of data and content and how we enhance, organize, connect, and deliver content and information. They are the engines underlying many of our products and services.” Dr. Khalid Al-Kofahi -Vice President, R&D and Head of the Center for AI and Cognitive Computing


When things go digital, they start following a new set of rules.

The rules of the physical world are either not applicable or are severely diminished. Things move from sparsity to abundance, where consumption does not lead to depletion. On the contrary, the more an object is consumed, the more valuable it becomes. Cost of production and distribution is no longer critical, and the concept of inventory is no longer applicable.

When things go digital, they also move from linear to exponential –  a world in which new technologies and new players can enter and dominate an industry in just a few years.

Consider that each year more people take online courses offered by Harvard than the number of students who attended Harvard in its 380-year history. Each year, three times more people use online dispute resolutions to resolve disputes on eBay than lawsuits filed in the United States. Each day, five billion videos are watched on YouTube. For context, the first YouTube video was uploaded in 2005. I was talking to a gentleman at Facebook a few weeks ago who said, “I joined Facebook three years ago and 70 percent of the company started after me.” Talk about hyper-growth businesses!

This is the environment that we operate in: Not only must we adapt, but we must help our customers adapt as well.

In the information industry and at Thomson Reuters, AI and machine learning (ML) are already driving innovation and transformation. They are embedded in how we sift through large volumes of data and content, and how we enhance, organize, connect, and deliver content and information. They are the engines underlying many of our products and services.



In the long term, our objective is to build personal digital assistants for knowledge workers. An assistant is an application that:

  • Interacts naturally with you
  • Is both responsive and proactive (without being intrusive)
  • The collection of all of your professional experiences
  • Available with a few words and a click
  • Learns from you as well as others (via their digital assistants)

Its purpose is not to replace you, but to augment you, to scale you, and to help you focus on more interesting tasks.

It will probably take a decade or two to build some of these digital assistants – but the near term is also full of interesting opportunities to transform, through simplification, automation, and machine assistance.

Research and Discovery

Research, discovery, and investigation represent a significant portion of what knowledge workers do. These are complex and time-consuming tasks, making them easy contenders for simplification, automation, and machine assistance.

Information Overload

Our world is connected and information-rich. The cycle of information creation is continuous and instant, and staying informed can be a daunting task. One of our primary objectives is to pivot away from customers finding information to the information finding the customer.

Risk and Compliance

This theme focuses on helping our customers comply with relevant laws and regulations, discover risks that could disrupt their businesses, and respond appropriately when things happen.

Making Sense

Knowledge work requires making sense of data in order to make time-sensitive and business-critical decisions. Whether it is a single document or collection of documents, an event, a work product, or an “abnormal” pattern, making sense is hard and time-consuming. AI can help.

This is just a selection of key focus areas based on analysis and discussions with our customers and business partners. The predictions in this report dive deeper into each of these opportunities. What is clear is that AI and machine learning are already here and their potential to assist knowledge workers is being realized.



industry 4.0

Industry 4.0

“Industry 4.0” refers to the fourth industrial revolution. After mechanization (Industry 1.0), mass production (Industry 2.0), and automation (Industry 3.0), now the “internet of things and services’’ is becoming an integral part of manufacturing. Industry 4.0 technologies have the potential to create extraordinary growth opportunities and competitive advantages for Germany as a business location. Experts forecast that businesses will be able to increase their productivity by about 30 percent using Industry 4.0’’ – BDI The Voice of German Industry

“INDUSTRIE 4.0 connects embedded system production technologies and smart production processes to pave the way to a new technological age which will radically transform industry and production value chains and business models.’’ – Germany Trade and Invest



Embracing Industry 4.0 – and Rediscovering Growth

“What is existing manufacturing and large technological innovations came together to create the next big manufacturing reinvention? Bingo. This is the fourth manufacturing revolution, and it’s happening right now.” – OLIVIER SCALABRE Senior Partner & Managing Director Paris

The rise of new digital industrial technology, known as Industry 4.0, is a transformation that makes it possible to gather and analyze data across machines, enabling faster, more flexible, and more efficient processes to produce higher-quality goods at reduced costs. This manufacturing revolution will increase productivity, shift economics, foster industrial growth, and modify the profile of the workforce—ultimately changing the competitiveness of companies and regions.


Nine Technologies Transforming Industrial Production

Advanced digital technology is already used in manufacturing, but Industry 4.0, will transform production. It will lead to greater efficiencies and change traditional production relationships among suppliers, producers, and customers—as well as between humans and machines. Nine technology trends form the building blocks of Industry 4.0.


adopting industry 4.0

Adopting Industry 4.0

Companies face formidable challenges in the adoption of these new technologies. To build and sustain a lead in the race to full implementation, they need to broaden and deepen their practical knowledge about digital technologies and the related use cases—and then develop and implement tailored digital manufacturing strategies.

BCG’s approach to Industry 4.0—along with the firm’s state-of-the-art model factories, or Innovation Centers for Operations—provides companies with the support they need to master the challenges of implementation.



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